RELIGIOSITAS DAN PRESTASI OLAHRAGA PADA ATLET Makalah disampaikan Abduljabar B. Pedagogi olahraga:konsep dan. ringkasan buku, membuat makalah, dan diskusi kelompok dengan .. guru yaitu, kompetensi profesional, pedagogik, kepribadian dan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, seni, dan budaya dan/atau olah raga. didalam pendekatan pedagogi pembelajaran dan pengajaran di dunia,tidak . bertanggung jawab, serta 3 jenis olahraga yang dianjurkan Rasulullah SAW Makalah ini akan memfokuskan kelebihan dan kekurangan penataan ruang.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Membina semula persekitaran pembelajaran diluar kelas yang mampan dari pemahaman rekabentuk dan pendekatan-pendekatan sekolah alam di Indonesia, 1st International Symposium on Conducive Learning Environment for Smart School CLES ’11 Developing an institution with a olwhraga Conducive Learning Environment in mind is not easy.

The development of the learning environment should be examined in terms of the environment, master planning, space planning and design elements as well as operating assets and buildings.

pedgogi This will create a school which takes into account the overall environment and ensure the health interests and excellent well being of its students. It intends to uphold and generate the development of knowledge in conducive learning environment for Malaysia and the world. The conference pedagoggi tries to gather and share different view and understanding of studies and research among academician, architect, consultants, developers, engineers, government officer, local authorities, manufacturers, politicians, project manager, students, surveyors and all those interested in one day seminar and conference in order to: To provide formal communication olanraga and publication to the members of the international researchers who have aspiration about Smart School.

To disseminate knowledge that related with the development of learning environment for smart school to the local and overseas research community.


To empower the research collaboration between members of the group with another researchers within and outside UKM. Empowering the research network for smart school with the local and overseas universities.

The study highlights the key components of PRIME and underscores the causes of variations that may occur in both the design and construction stages in the school building projects. The effects of the variations made in the PRIME school building projects will be presented, together with a checklist of the corresponding controls to manage these variations that may occur during the: Finally, the paper will present the most important causes, their frequent effects and effective controls for managing change orders in the PRIME school building projects in Singapore.

They usually have long duration, various uncertainties, and complex relationships among the participants. The need to make changes in a construction project is a matter of practical reality.

The high living standards have generated many manufacturing and building employment opportunities in global construction industry. The growth of towns has accelerated as a result of high population growth. Large and complex projects have been built, attracting contractors from all over the world.

Most of these contractors appear to lack a sufficient understanding of the social, cultural and physical environment Dulaimi and Hwa, This situation, coupled with inexperienced owners, has led to inadequate designs resulting in many changes to plans, specifications and contract terms.

Changes are inevitable in any construction project Mokhtar, et al. Needs of the owner may change in the course of design or construction, market conditions may impose changes to the parameters of the project, and technological developments may alter the design and the choice of the engineer.

Furthermore, errors and omissions in engineering or construction may force a change. All these factors and many others necessitate changes that are costly and generally un-welcomed by all parties.

Contractual provision is required to define the conduct of owner, consultant and contractor to participate in and manage changes. Systematic and proper procedures must be set in place to process a change from conceptual development until it materializes in the field.

The reality is that an adverse environment exists among parties in the construction industry. Changes could be perceived as positive or negative to the preconceived goals of the professionals involved in a project.

Electronic Journal of Indonesia University of Education

Therefore, a major change must be managed and handled professionally in order to minimize its cost, schedule and consequential impacts that may divert the project away from its targeted goals. To identify and analyze potential changes that could happen in a project as early as possible can enhance the management of projects.


Learning from these changes is imperative because the professionals can improve and apply their experience in the future. For this purpose, certain basic fundamentals must first be put in place. In addition to committed and well trained teachers, the education system must be supported by excellent school facilities to create a physically conducive environment for the learning journey.


Many of the primary and secondary schools both government and aided in Singapore were some 20 to 30 years old about the time when this vision was articulated. The new pedagkgi upgraded facilities will include computer laboratories, media resource libraries, IT learning resource rooms, IT networking for the entire school, pastoral care rooms and health and fitness rooms.

Teachers and students can also look forward to bigger classrooms and staff-rooms, and more interaction areas. Schools that were built before will either be rebuilt or upgraded. Upgrading works involve olahragx of extension blocks and alteration of existing school buildings.

Journal of Physical Education and Sports

Rebuilding works involve the construction of entirely new buildings. Construction in PRIME is carried out in phases, and the selection of schools for PRIME is determined by the age and state of the school physical facilities as well as the availability and suitability of sites for this purpose. Ministry of Education, Singapore at www. As of Julysome schools have been included in the earlier ten phases of PRIME, of which schools have completed their upgrading programmes.

Beginning in earlyall schools will be provided with an indoor sports hall in phases to facilitate flexibility in co-curricular activities, sports and games without being affected by inclement weather Ministry of Education, Given the massive capital investments in PRIME projects, important consideration must be given to budgetary and costs controls. Part of this important consideration relates to how costs may be better controlled through an effective system for managing change in the design and construction phases of the PRIME projects.

Construction projects are bound to encounter change orders; the goal of the owner, design or construction manager is to limit the number of such changes CII, a; Ibbs, Proper management of change orders is very significant for all types of construction projects. Changes in drawings and contract documents usually lead to a change in contract price or contract schedule. Change also increases the possibility of contractual disputes. Conventionally, changes present problems to all the parties involved in the construction process.

This is not to say that contractors do not create a slew of problems of their own but that these problems were often compounded by inherent design flaws. If one were to seriously consider ways to reduce problems on site, an obvious place to begin with is to focus on what the project team can do to eliminate these problems at the design phase. There are many reasons for issuing construction change order in the construction process. It can be a result of the non-availability or slow delivery of required materials or the correction of contract document errors and omissions Thomas, Identifying the causes of change orders is very important in order to avoid potential changes in future projects or to minimize their effects.

The construction process is influenced by highly changing variables and unpredictable factors that could result from different sources Zipf, These sources include the performance of construction parties, resources availability, environmental conditions, involvement of other parties and contractual relations.

As a consequence of these sources, the construction of projects may face problems which could cause delay in the project completion time Clough and Sears, In the case of time over run, the most important factors that caused delays were design changes, poor labor productivity, inadequate planning and resource shortage. The impact of changes varies from one project to another.

However, it is generally accepted that the changes affect the construction projects with unpalatable consequences in time and cost CII, ; CII, ; Hester, et al. The nature and frequency of changes occurrence vary from one project to another depending on various factors CII, a; Kaming, et al. Changes in construction projects can cause substantial adjustment to the contract duration, total direct and indirect costs, or both Tiong, ; Odell, ; Ibbs, a; Ibbs, et al.

Therefore, project management teams must have the ability to respond to changes effectively in order to minimize their adverse impact to the project.

Great concerns have been expressed in recent years regarding the impact of changes in construction projects. As mentioned briefly in the previous section, changes are frequent in construction pedagogo and can cause considerable adjustments to the project time, cost and quality.

The pedaagogi of change orders are greatly varied, thus making the task of change management difficult oahraga most clients. However, the undesirable situation can be minimized as long as a mechanism for handling change orders and making more informed decisions based on the past projects can be understood and built into project management.


The litmus test for successful management should not be whether the project was free of change orders, but rather, if change orders were resolved in a timely manner to the benefit of all the parties and the project. A clearer view of the causes and their impacts and controls will enable the project team to take advantage of beneficial changes when the opportunity arises without an inordinate fear of negative impacts. No such studies have been undertaken on the management and control of change orders on a large scale so far using an IT based decision support system platform.

The Project Change Management System PCMS will assist professionals in analyzing changes and selecting the appropriate controls for minimizing their adverse impacts by providing timely information.

Furthermore, by having a systematic way to manage changes, the efficiency of project work and the likelihood of project success should increase. Learning from the changes is very important because the professionals could improve and apply their experience in the future Ibbs, et al. In cases where professionals leave the organization, the project experience continues to reside within the individual professionals. In the absence of an established and organized knowledge-base of past similar projects, the professional teams would face problems in planning effectively before starting a project, during the design phase as well as during the construction phase to minimize and control changes and their effects.

Hence, a comprehensive system for consolidating decisions made on past similar projects is highly recommended. Most researchers have looked at the classification olahrqga changes Thomas and Napolitan, ; Yu, ; Fisk, ; Hsieh, et al.

The issue concerning changes has received much attention in the literature.

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Despite many mmakalah and much discussion in practice and academic literature, an in-depth and ,akalah view of causes, their effects and controls for changes for making timely and more informed pedagoti for effective management of change orders was not well represented in the literature.

A clearer view of the causes and their impacts on the projects will enable the project team to take advantage of beneficial changes. Eventually, a clearer and comprehensive view of the causes, their effects and potential controls will result in informed decisions for effective management of change orders. In olahraha of the transfer and acquisition of construction knowledge and experience, a Decision Support System DSS can help to conserve the knowledge and experience and make these more widely, easily and quickly available for assisting in the decision making process Alkass, et al.

The decision aid can also facilitate pedagogu knowledge acquisition process once it has acquired the necessary construction knowledge and mwkalah and transferred these into a usable form McCoy and Levary, A knowledge-base would assist in making more informed decisions because it provides an excellent opportunity to learn from past projects Turban, ; Arain and Low, b.

A comprehensive knowledge-base of past projects is recommended. However, there were no significant research studies undertaken on the management and controls of change orders on a large scale so far using an IT based management system platform. Functionally, a change order accomplishes after execution of the agreement what the specifications addenda do prior to oahraga opening see Figure 1except that an accompanying price change may be involved in a change order.

It is the standard practice in construction contracts to allow the owner the right to make changes in the work after the contract has been signed and during the construction period. To overcome the problems associated with changes to a project, the project team must be able to effectively analyze the change and its immediate and downstream effects CII, a. Potential Causes of Change Orders An effective analysis of changes and change orders requires a comprehensive understanding of the root causes of changes Hester, et al.

Hence, 53 causes peagogi change orders were identified. As pedagofi in Figure 2, the causes of changes were grouped under four categories: Owner related changes, Consultant related changes, Contractor related changes and Other changes. These groups assisted in developing a comprehensive enumeration of the potential causes of changes. The 16 potential effects identified from the literature review are shown in Figure 3. These will also form the basis for the survey of the professionals described later.