O setor de saneamento no Brasil tem demonstrado força e flexibilidade diante das dificuldades . Em janeiro de , o Presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva assinou uma nova lei federal de água e saneamento (Lei /07 para o. 25 set. Four decades later, the enactment of Federal Law of 05/01/, which .. LEONELLI, G. C. V. A construção da lei federal de parcelamento do solo urbano . Institui a Política Nacional de Saneamento e cria. Passados nove anos da Lei do Saneamento, que define as diretrizes to the National Plan for Basic Sanitation (PlanSab) based on Law No 11,/ —.
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After nine years of the Sanitation Law that defines the national guidelines in eli area, it is still necessary to clarify the elements characterizing basic sanitation, and seek tools that enable monitoring sanitation in municipalities. Increasing international initiatives employ composite indicators to measure the performance of cities, compare them and use them to influence national and international political discussions.
The results show three indicators that compose a municipal index and indicate the need for data to fully evaluate sanitation.
In Brazil there sansamento roughly 3. This data demonstrates the need for improvements in basic sanitation. To do this, it will be necessary to monitor the sanitation situation in municipalities to determine the dimensions of the effort and resources necessary.
By monitoring sanitation in the municipalities, public administration can plan specific actions, establish performance and quality metrics, and orient public policies. Since this is an explanatory study, our application focuses on a group of municipalities to evaluate the possibility of this type of usage.
Saneamento no Brasil
Qualitative research provides more profound research about a given situation Cooper and Schindler,and this is why we have applied it in order to understand the components and attributes of sanitation. The analysis of the variables used to elaborate the composite indicators for basic sanitation is based on the Handbook on constructing composite indicators Giovannini et al. Step 3 is based on exploratory factor analysis FA to determine the structure of the relationships between the variables Corrar, Paulo and Dias Filho, Adapted from Giovannini and collaborators and Meijering, Kern and Tobi Even though FA is generally just for metric variables, Hair and collaborators consider it acceptable to include a small number of dichotomic variables among the metric variables analyzed by factors.
To accomplish this, we used 83 metric variables, and 9 dichotomic variables related to urban drainage which has a scarcity of data. In terms of the sample size, according to Hair and collaboratorsthere need to be more observations than variables, with the minimum acceptable ratio being 5: The sample consisted of observations the quantity of municipalities and 92 variables, equivalent to a ratio of 5: The municipalities selected for the analysis were those which possessed a majority of the information related to the four components of basic ed, this being a sample that conveniently represents After dr tests, we used an octagonal rotation using the Varimax method to interpret the solution.
Indicadores de saneamento: uma análise de variáveis para elaboração de indicadores municipais
The FA summarizes the variables and generates factor scores for the municipalities. According to Le and collaboratorsthe factor score represents the degree to which each municipality has a an elevated score within the group of items that have elevated weights for a given factor; that is, higher values with elevated weights for a factor result in a larger factor score.
The justification for this factor score is that it is computed based on the factor weights of all of the variables that make up a factor, avoiding a repetition of information.
For the municipality groupings, we have adopted the city typology as suggested by Meijering, Kern and Tobiavoiding the comparison of municipalities that have different characteristics.
Within the international context, there is a growing utilization of performance indicators in the sanitation sector to monitor the providing of, regulation of, and planning of these services Sperling and Sperling, From the point of view of public administration, the monitoring of data is important and necessary in order to accompany saneameento progress of activities, improve the transparency of the accounting, and demonstrate results Schwemlein, Cronk and Bartram, According to Kern apud Meijering, Kern and Tobi,one tool that has often been used to influence national and international political discussions is the European green city rankings.
There is also a sanitation ranking initiative that has been undertaken by the government of India. What these three rankings have in common is that they are based on indicators or indices that are applied to cities and that range in number from 12 to Thematic content analysis of the Sanitation Law confirmed four components: Based on these themes, the indicators were selected to understand the correlated structure formed by them.
The concept of adequate sanitation was also defined through a thematic content analysis of the principles of the Sanwamento Law, which have been grouped by these themes, forming the attributes of box 2. Of the 16 attributes, the data selection managed to include only eight of them, and some of them only partially. This is an estimate, because an attribute cannot always be measured by just one indicator.
Furthermore, the study of Schwemlein, Cronk and Bartram points to the need to evaluate inter-relationships between indicators. In terms of universalization, the SNIS is still not able to furnish information about sanitation in the rural and peripheral areas discussed in the study conducted by Schneider and collaborators Elaborated by the authors. The objectives of the FA were: To summarize these characteristics, we applied factor analysis using R, which analyzes a group of variables to saneamfnto its latent dimensions.
The correlation matrix analysis considered only values above 0. The criteria for the extraction of the number of factors was the latent root, with only eigenvalues greater than 1 being considered significant, which resulted in three factors or latent dimensions: In total, the factors explain The factor loads are the correlations of each saneamenfo with the factor, the lowest load being 0.
saneameto The degree to which the results can be generalized was tested by dividing the sample randomly into two sub-samples and the results of the Varimax rotation loads, the commonalities, and the factor structure proved to be stable, because there was no representative load of the variable in other factors. To aggregate the factor scores by geometric average, we had to normalize the factor scores to avoid saneamneto values. The normalization was performed based saneamentto taking the lowest factor score and summing the other values.
In addition, it was necessary to differentiate the value of zero, to not arrive at a geometric value of zero, by considering the value closest to zero. In terms of the weighting, in FA the weighting intervenes to correct the overlapping of information between two or more correlated indicators and does not measure the theoretical importance associated with the indicator Giovannini et al.
In this sense, different weights were not attributed due to theoretical importance; equal weights were considered for all of the factors.
In terms of the aggregation of the factors, we opted for the geometric average due to facility of applying it and to reduce, at least partially, the problem of it being a compensatory technique. Table 2 shows the quantities of the state municipalities and their respective typologies as well as those of the sample.
It may be noted that the municipalities not included in the analysis due to a lack of data did not significantly affect the representativeness of the sample, given that the proportions were maintained. Only Profile I had a large reduction in representativeness. In terms of the WSW Coverage indicator, the value of 25 is much larger than the second largest value. In general, the MBSI values for municipalities are very close to each other. However, in terms of the indicators W Efficiency and D Efficiency, more differences emerge among these municipalities.
The strong points of the elaborated 114445 indicators are: The visualization of the classification results facilitates 114445 interpretation of information in a clear and objective manner. In this sense, it seeks to represent these municipalities by typology in a table format for swneamento initial interpretation by placing each municipality within the group that it belongs to.
The second form of analysis is the value of each of the factors. Overall it follows a standard structure: This study demonstrates the need for data to evaluate sanitation in a complete manner, considering the concept of adequate sanitation. Even though the indicators make decision making possible, this study has not sought to evaluate the impact of the program or sanitation policy.
In terms of its contributions, this study offers: In terms of limitations, we can cite the lack of available data for all of the municipalities, the reliability of the collected data, the ,ei of integrating information from various databases, the manner of comparing municipalities based on profiles, and the aggregation of data which has the limitation of using a compensatory method, even though this was only used to a partial extent.
Xe far as opportunities are concerned, this methodology can be applied to other states in future studies, and there is a need for greater breadth in terms of indicators to monitor saheamento sanitation services in these municipalities. Lei n o Handbook on constructing composite indicators: Rio de Janeiro, A study of sanitation of toilets in elementary and senior Secondary schools located in rural areas of Uttarakhand state in India.
International Journal of Sociology and Anthropologyv. Identifying the methodological characteristics of European green city rankings. Ecological Indicatorsv. Plos Medicinev. Secretaria do Meio Ambiente.
Indicators for monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene: Practical Perspectives Sanitation indicators: Abstract After nine years of the Sanitation Law that defines the national guidelines in this area, it is still necessary to clarify the elements characterizing basic ee, and seek tools that enable monitoring sanitation in municipalities. Introduction In Brazil there are roughly 3.
Saneamento no Brasil – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Sanitation indicators Within the international context, there is a growing utilization of performance indicators in the sanitation sector se monitor the providing of, regulation of, and planning sanramento these services Sperling and Sperling, Final considerations This study demonstrates the need for data to evaluate sanitation in a complete manner, considering the concept of adequate sanitation.
August 19, ; Accepted: Como citar este artigo. R2 — Urban population served by the household collection service inhabitants.