This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.

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It remains for me only to indicate in brief the materials that I have made use of in preparing this translation. An instance Of the erratic is given below: Nyfiya-fcutra by Gotama or Aksapada B.

Some say that the soul is not eternal because it may be produced along with desire as other things are produced along with their qualities. There is a whole because we can hold, pull, etc. Because there is nothing except colour, etc.

The fact of his eating in the night has not been expressly slated but is ascertained from this consi- deration that a person who does not eat during the day cannot be stroug unless he eats in the night.

Book I of the NyAya-Satra treats of “enunciation” aud ” definition,” while the remaining four Books are reserved for ” critical examination. An irregularity may be designated as such with reference to some- thing else, but witli reference to itself it is a settled fact. The translation of Vatsyayana was taken up in sheer “bravado,” if the use of such a term be permissible in this connection. But such is never the case.

Hence there is no doubt, but on the contrary there is conviction, in the minds of both. It further proves that sound is not unalterable or eternal. Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad. Sentiments which comprise pleasure and pain are also located in the body which experiences them. Other historical Indian commentaries and works inspired by Nyayasutras and which have survived into the modern era, include Nyaya-varttika by 6th-century Uddyotakara, Nyaya-bhasyatika by 6th-century Bhavivikta, another Nyaya-bhasyatika by 7th-century Aviddhakarna, Nyaya-bhusana by 9th-century Bhasarvajana, Nyaya-manjari by 9th-century Kashmir scholar Jayanta Bhatta, Nyaya-prakirnaka by 10th-century Karnata scholar Trilocana, and Nyaya-kandali by 10th-century Bengal scholar Sridhara.

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If perception were simultaneous with its object there would not, says the objector, be any order of succes- sion in our cognitions as there is no such order in their corresponding objects. Hence we are not incapable of committing sins by killing or murder.

The verbal testi- mony is, therefore, supposed by Borne to be inference, as the object revealed by both is unperceived. Jf we accept the theory of modification the letter y which originat- ed from the short i must be supposed to be less in bulk than the y which originated from the long i.

It is, some say, not so because remembrance is lodged in the object remembered. We recognise a bos gavaeus at first sight through its special nyxya to a sutga which we have often perceived.

The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara

In our definition of perception we have mentioned only the special cause, and have omitted the common causes which precede not only perception hut also other kinds of knowledge. From the absence of magnitude and obvlpjja sutrw the ray of the eye-ball is not perceived.

Moreover, the mind cannot be the agent as it nnyaya atomic in nature. The connection between a word and its meaning is conventional and not natural.

The spell counteracts poison, etc. Gxutama there is recognition of the common agutama, etcthere cannot be doubt. But how can we throw a thing into obscurity which never possessed manifestation? It is of three kinds, viz. Now, says the objector, perception and inference being two different kinds of knowledge cannot be simultaneous, as the mind which is an atomic substance cannot be instrumental in producing more than one kind of knowledge at a time. Examination should be made of each case where there is room for doubt.

Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. A blue pot is distinguished by the blueness which is its mark. Aphorism brings forth gaautama objection that doubt is not produced even by the recognition of common or uncommon properties alone.

You cannot say that there is non-perception of the cause of cessation of sound, because we actually perceive that by the contact of our hand we can stop the sound of a gong.


The sages them- selves were reliable because 1 they had an intuitive peiception of truths, 2 they had great kindness for living beings and 3 they had the desire of communicating their knowledge of the truths. A modification must be of the same nature with its original material, though the former may not correspond in bulk to the latter.

Here unless it is actually proved that shadow possesses motion, we cannot accept it as the reason for the nyaaya that shadow is a sub- stance.

In fact there are only five objects fautama are cognised by the five senses. From the contact of a sense with its object no knowledge arises unless, it is said, there is also conjunction of tautama with mind.

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The allied Jain and on the system as a whole. His doubt is not removed uutil by the application of reasons he can vindicate either of the parties. Inference, some say, is not a means of right knowledge as it errs in certain cases, e. But such a conclusion is absurd: In other words, the” desire proves the existence of the creature or rather of his soul in the previous lives.

Enter your mobile number or email address below and we’ll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. It is possible that the motion belongs to the person who causes that obstruction of light which is called shadow.

Comparison, some say, is not a means of right knowledge as it cannot be established either through complete or considerable or partial similarity. Direction, space, time and ether are also indispensable conditions in the production of knowledge. Nose is of the same nature as earth, tongue as water, oye as light, skin as air and ear as ether.