DIN Electrical installations in residential buildings – Part 1: Planning principles. standard by Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V. DIN DE. Elektrische Anlagen in Wohngebäuden – Teil 1: Planungsgrundlagen (Foreign Standard). Diese Norm gilt für die Planung von. Draft standard DIN – Draft. Electrical installations in residential buildings – Part 1: Planning principles. German title: Elektrische.
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As an overall result, it can be stated that the riser may just be missed out of this consideration right from the start. In the first example Table 3 the factor F L is very high, since the junction box is only fully utilised on rare occasions on an annual average basis: Maximum and selected cable lengths; annual losses without electrical warm water supply.
Hence, the force to design the conductors to the peak of the occurring load is not really a cost driver but rather a piggy bank, viewed across the lifespan, adding erection and loss costs! With all care that has to be taken with respect to the assumptions and simplifications made, the following results become obvious: In this particular case, however, the result also means that a practicable potential energy saving — as expected — hardly exists in relation to the final circuits of private homes.
Cynics may claim this was common practice anyhow.
With all care that has to be taken with respect to the assumptions and simplifications made, the following results become obvious:. Since the office has been in operation for 33 years already, an additional initial investment for conductors upsized to 2. Analogous investigations should now be carried out for the other load profiles. So one ought to calculate with half the load as a mean or, alternatively, with half the real length, neither of which was done here.
In fact, every storey takes away its part of the load, and the last section is loaded only more with the current of two flats. Due to the relatively coarsely tiered standard sizes and due to the abrupt leap of the voltage drop from 0.
These result in payback times of 7 and 6 years, respectively. We see that the payback periods — now for only one standard size up — rise to values of 30 or 25 years, respectively.
Electrical installations in residential buildings – Part 1: Planning principles
An assessment must be found for each individual cable. This being so, the estimate is quite likely to be still too 18015- since all risers have been calculated as being loaded with the entire current drawn by the building. The effect of the thermal heat that increases over-proportionately if the current is uneven is balanced out by correction factor F Dun of the load profile in question.
Over the rest of the day, this larger cross section then reduces the losses.
Fluorescent Magnetic ballasts principle Magnetic ballast disturbances Compensation Electronic ballasts principle Electronic ballast disturbances Fluorescent lamp efficiency Leuchtstofflampen-Quecksilber. In the first example Table 3 the factor F L is very high, since the junction box is only fully utilised on idn occasions on an annual average basis:.
Data underlying the calculations according to Table From a qualitative point of view let us stay with simplifying approach 2, of transferring the load profile that is valid for the system in question to the final circuits. Only they are not sufficient to create a methodology for determining this optimum.
But let us have one more look at the riser supplying a single home, a few or a multitude of homes. Oberschwingungen Definitionen Spannung oder Strom? This result is particularly astonishing if you consider that the 1.
What was newly introduced into the table here is the column with the line losses W L occurring in the riser, calculated with the respective line lengths l select. Applying the same procedure to the office from Table 4 turns the table straight away.
Of course, the same load profile as for the one and only flat in the first line of the table was also applied to the respective riser. However, the synthesis of the two can be developed further:.
Fortunately a helpful colleague had been prepared to restore the lost data underlying the diagram Fig. Despite all the uncertainty with this precise, but estimate-based calculation, the factor of 6, on the other hand, allows for quite a certain assumption that the additional investment would have paid off until today.
Good as it is so far, but now how to arrive at the losses? A creative assumption is required again here, for so long already two calculation models are at hand: The office Attempt to develop a method The multi-family home The single-family home Example 1: Maximum and selected cable lengths; annual losses with electrical warm water supply.
Djn, the synthesis of the two can be developed further: Proposal for a method Cable efficiency helpers Outlook. Further arguments like resource savings and CO 2 reduction would still come on top — if not then, now they would.
While such a high power is needed for just a few minutes per day, the requirements for larger conductor cross sections are the same as would be for permanent load. The installation method be B1 again. The disadvantage is that this is of no use to us, since transferring the profile from the overall operation to these individual final circuits does not offer a solution.
Deutsches Kupferinstitut: Cable efficieny method
This leads to the relatively high values of 7. We must now look at how the expenditure required for this can be kept within reasonable limits. Even if the mentioned guesswork should be by a whole magnitude in error, this would not change anything about the result. Introduction Approach 1 Approach 2 Attempt to develop a method Result: In other words, this is the root from the quotient of the least uniform by the most uniform load distribution across the year and across the circuits that is at all possible.
The riser need not be optimized anymore because it has already been energy optimized, although not for energy efficiency but other — compelling — reasons. Regarding the quantification of line losses, this brings about the question which line length to assume.
An individual dwelling — in effect a single-family home — causes losses worth around 40 cents annually. System Production of copper Recycling copper Availability of copper Life Cycle Corrosion behaviour copper materials Semi-finished copper products Copper composite materials.
It is also listed in the tables but has already been included in the calculation of the table. If upgrading the conductor cross-section from 1.