BUCHSTABIERALPHABET ENGLISCH PDF

Aussprache (Anfänger A1-A2) – Das englische Alphabet (Anfänger A1): Erklärungen, Hörbeispiele und abwechslungsreiche Übungen – Englisch Lernen Online. Deutsch Englisch (Brit.) Englisch (Amer.) Intern. (Telefon) Intern. (Funk). A. Anton. Andres. Able. Amsterdam. Alfa. Ä. Ärger. B. Berta. Benjamin. Baker. Baltimore. Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet [United States Armed Forces, – ] · einheitliches Buchstabieralphabet {n} der.

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The NATO phonetic alphabetofficially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabetand also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabetand in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure codeis the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet.

Although often called “phonetic alphabets”, spelling alphabets are unrelated to phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO alphabet assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabetso that critical combinations of letters and numbers are most likely to be pronounced and understood by those who exchange voice messages by radio or telephone, regardless of language differences or the quality of the communication channel.

The 26 code words in the NATO phonetic alphabet are assigned to the 26 letters of the English alphabet in alphabetical order as follows: Strict adherence to the prescribed spelling words is required in order to avoid the problems of confusion that the spelling alphabet is designed to overcome. As noted in a NATO memo. It is known that [the ICAO spelling alphabet] has been prepared only after the most exhaustive tests on a scientific basis by several nations.

One of the firmest conclusions reached was that it was not practical to make an isolated change to clear confusion between one pair of letters. To change one word involves reconsideration of the whole alphabet to ensure that the change proposed to clear one confusion does not itself introduce others.

The same alphabetic code words are used by all agencies, but each agency chooses one of two different sets of numeric code words. In practice these are used very rarely, as they frequently result in confusion between speakers of different languages. A spelling alphabet is used to spell parts of a message containing letters and numbers to avoid confusion, because many letters sound similar, for instance “n” and “m” or “f” and “s”; the potential for confusion increases if static or other interference is present.

Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet

For instance the message “proceed to map grid DH98” could be transmitted as “proceed to map grid Delta-Hotel-Niner-Ait”. The unusual pronunciation of certain numbers was designed to reduce confusion as well.

In addition to the traditional military usage, civilian industry uses the alphabet to avoid similar problems in the transmission of messages by telephone systems. For example, it is often used in the retail industry where customer or site details are spoken by telephone to authorize a credit agreement or confirm stock codesalthough ad hoc coding is often used in that instance.

Most major airlines use the alphabet to communicate Passenger Name Records PNRs internally, and in some cases, with customers. It is often used in a medical context as well, to avoid confusion when transmitting information. During the Vietnam Enhlischthe U. The final choice of code words for the letters of the alphabet and for the digits was made after hundreds of thousands of comprehension tests involving 31 nationalities.

The qualifying feature was buchstabieralphabef likelihood of a code word being understood in the context of others. Buchstabieralpnabet example, football has a higher chance of being understood than foxtrot in isolation, but foxtrot is superior in extended communication. The pronunciation of the code words varies according to the language habits of the speaker. To eliminate wide variations in pronunciation, recordings and posters illustrating the pronunciation desired by the ICAO are available.

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Also, although all codes for the letters of the alphabet are English words, they are not in general given English pronunciations. Pronunciations are somewhat uncertain because the agencies, while ostensibly using the same pronunciations, give different transcriptions, which are often inconsistent from letter to letter. ATIS gives English spellings, but does not give pronunciations or numbers. The pronunciation of the digits 3, 4, 5, and 9 differs from standard English — being pronounced treefowerfifeand niner.

The digit 3 is specified as tree so that it is not pronounced sri ; the long pronunciation of 4 still found in some English dialects keeps it somewhat distinct from for ; 5 is pronounced with a second “f” because the normal pronunciation with a “v” is easily confused with “fire” a command to shoot ; and 9 has an extra syllable to keep it distinct from German nein ‘no’. Both the IPA and respelled pronunciations were developed by the ICAO before with advice from the governments of both the United States and United Kingdom, [17] so the pronunciations of both General American English and British Received Pronunciation are evident, especially in the rhotic and non-rhotic accents.

Prior to World War I and the development and widespread adoption of two-way radio that supported voice, telephone spelling alphabets were developed to improve communication on low-quality and long-distance telephone circuits. The experience gained huchstabieralphabet that alphabet resulted in several changes being made during by the ITU. Throughout World War II, many nations used their own versions of a spelling alphabet.

At least two of the terms are sometimes still used by UK civilians to spell words over the phone, namely F for Freddie and S for Sugar. To enable the U. It was defined in one or more of CCBP The CCB alphabet itself was based buchstabiearlphabet the U. Army Field Manuals in the series.

Several of these documents had revisions, and were renamed. Handy, directorate of Communications in the Army Air Force and a member of the working committee of the Combined Communications Boardenlisted the help of Harvard University’s Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory, asking them to determine the most bhchstabieralphabet word for each letter when using “military interphones in the intense noise encountered in modern warfare.

According to a report on the subject. The results showed that many of the words in the military lists had a low level of intelligibility, but that most of the deficiencies could be remedied by the judicious selection of words from the commercial codes and those tested by the laboratory.

In a few instances where none of the words englisvh be regarded as especially satisfactory, it was believed possible to discover suitable replacements.

Other words were tested and the most intelligible ones were compared with the more engglisch lists. After World War II, with many aircraft and ground personnel from the allied armed forces, “Able Baker” was officially adopted for use in international aviation.

But many sounds were unique buchstabierslphabet English, so an alternative “Ana Brazil” alphabet was used in Latin America. After further study and modification by each approving body, the revised alphabet was adopted on 1 Bucustabieralphabetto become effective on 1 April for civil aviation but it may not have been adopted by any military.

Problems were soon found with this list. Some users believed that they were so severe that they reverted to the old “Able Baker” alphabet.

NATO phonetic alphabet

Confusion among words like Delta and Extraand between Nectar and Victoror the unintelligibility of other words during poor receiving conditions were the main problems. Later inICAO decided to revisit the alphabet and their research. To identify the deficiencies of the new alphabet, testing was conducted among speakers from 31 nations, principally by the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States.

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Among the more engliscg of the research findings was that “higher noise levels do not create confusion, but do intensify those confusions already inherent between the words in question”. By early the ICAO was nearly complete with this research, and published the new official phonetic alphabet in order to account for discrepancies that might arise in communications as a result of multiple alphabet naming systems coexisting in different places and organizations.

After all of the above study, only the bucustabieralphabet words representing the buchstqbieralphabet C, M, N, U, and X were replaced. It was finally adopted by the IMO in In the official [32] version engljsch the alphabet, the non-English spellings Alfa and Juliett are used.

Alfa is spelled with an f as it is in most European languages because the English and French spelling alpha would not be englishc properly by native speakers of some other languages — who may not know that ph should be pronounced as f.

Juliett nuchstabieralphabet spelled with a tt for French speakers, because they may otherwise treat a single final t as silent. In some English versions of the alphabet, one or both of these may have their standard English spelling. For the and phonetics, each transmission of figures is preceded and followed by the words “as a number” spoken twice.

The ITU adopted the International Maritime Organization ‘s phonetic spelling alphabet in[50] and in specified that it be “for application in the maritime mobile service only”.

Pronunciation was not defined prior to For the —Present phonetics, the underlined syllable of each letter word should be emphasized, and each syllable of the code words for the figures —Present should be equally emphasized. The Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet is used by the International Civil Aviation Organization for international aircraft communications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 27 April International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved 2 July Glossary of Telecommunication Terms”. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 22 August Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 31 October Archived from the original on 12 October Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 11 August Buchstabiedalphabet from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 2 August Archived PDF from the original on 24 September Retrieved November 1, Archived from the original on 28 July Archived from the original on 17 July Retrieved 29 August Retrieved 26 April Letter from Everett Conder to William F.

Friedman, February 11, ” PDF. A Magazine for Aviators, Pilots and Adventurers”. Bucustabieralphabet – Delta The Airline. Retrieved from ” https: Archived copy as title Webarchive template enylisch links CS1 maint: Views Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 27 Decemberat By using this site, you agree to the Buvhstabieralphabet of Use and Privacy Policy.